Absolute Brightness (Absolute
A measure of the true brightness of an object. The absolute
brightness or magnitude of an object is the apparent brightness or magnitude
it would have if it were located exactly 32.6 light-years (10 parsecs) away.
For example, the apparent brightness of our Sun is much greater than that of
the star Rigel in the constellation Orion because it is so close to us. However,
if both objects were placed at the same distance from us, Rigel would appear
much brighter than our Sun because its absolute brightness is much larger.
The ability of an instrument, such as a telescope, to
distinguish objects that are very close to each other. The angular resolution
of an instrument is the smallest angular separation at which the instrument
can observe two neighboring objects as two separate objects. The angular resolution
of the human eye is about a minute of arc. As car headlights approach from a
far-off point, they appear as a single light until the separation between the
lights increases to a point where they can be resolved as two separate lights.
The apparent size of an object as seen by an observer;
expressed in units of degrees (of arc), arc minutes, or arc seconds. The moon,
as viewed from the Earth, has an angular diameter of one-half a degree.
Apparent Brightness (Apparent
A measure of the brightness of a celestial object as it
appears from Earth. The Sun is the brightest object in Earth's sky and has the
greatest apparent magnitude, with the moon second. Apparent brightness does
not take into account how far away the object is from Earth.
One arc minute is 1/60 of a degree of arc. The angular
diameter of the full moon or the Sun as seen from Earth is about 30 arc minutes.
One arc second is 1/60 of an arc minute and 1/3600 of
an arc degree. The apparent size of a dime about 3.7 kilometers (2.3 miles)
away would be an arc second. The angular diameter of Jupiter varies from about
30 to 50 arc seconds, depending on its distance from Earth.
A scientist who studies the universe and the celestial bodies residing in it, including their composition, history, location, and motion. Many of the scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute are astronomers. Astronomers from all over the world use the Hubble Space Telescope.
Astronomical Unit (AU)
The average distance between the Earth and the Sun, which
is about 150 million kilometers (93 million miles). This unit of length is commonly
used for measuring the distances between objects within the solar system.
The distance between two or more telescopes that are working
together as a single instrument to observe celestial objects. The wider the
baseline, the greater the resolving power.
The shortening of a light wave from an object moving toward
an observer. For example, when a star is traveling toward Earth, its light appears
An imaginary sphere encompassing the Earth that represents
the sky. Astronomers chart the sky using the celestial coordinates of the sphere
to locate objects in the cosmos. This sphere is divided into 88 sections called
constellations. Objects are sometimes named for the major constellation in which
The area of a telescope’s primary light-collecting
mirror. A telescope’s light-gathering power rises with an increase in its
A geometric pattern of bright stars that appears grouped
in the sky. Ancient observers named many constellations after gods, heroes,
animals, and mythological beings. Leo (the Lion) is one example of the 88 constellations.
The central region of a planet, star, or galaxy.
The relative proportions of chemical elements in the Sun,
the solar system, and the local region of the Milky Way galaxy. These proportions
are determined by studies of the spectral lines in astronomical objects and
are averaged for many stars in our cosmic neighborhood. For example, for every
million hydrogen atoms in an average star like our Sun, there are 98,000 helium
atoms, 360 carbon atoms, 110 nitrogen atoms, 850 oxygen atoms, and so on.
One of two celestial coordinates required to locate an
astronomical object, such as a star, on the celestial sphere. Declination is
the measure of angular distance of a celestial object above or below the celestial
equator and is comparable to latitude. To familiarize yourself with declination,
hold out your arm in the direction of the North Star (Polaris). You are now
pointing at plus 90 degrees declination. Move your arm downward by 90 degrees.
You are now pointing at 0 degrees declination.
Degree of Arc
One degree of arc is 1/360 of a full circle. The apparent
sizes of objects as seen from Earth can be measured in degrees of arc. The angular
diameter of the full moon or the Sun as seen from Earth is one-half of a degree.
The separation of heavy matter from light matter, thus
causing a variation in density and composition. Differentiation occurs in an
object like a planet as gravity draws heavier material toward the planet’s
center and lighter material rises to the surface.
A device that splits light into its component parts or
spectrum. A diffraction grating often consists of a mirror with thousands of
closely spaced parallel lines, which spread out the light into parallel bands
of colors or distinct fine lines or bars.
A special kind of elongated circle. The orbits of the
solar system planets form ellipses.
Field of View (FOV)
A telescope’s viewing area, measured in degrees,
arc minutes, or arc seconds. A telescope that can just fit the full moon into
its complete viewing area has a field of view of roughly 30 arc minutes.
An adjective meaning “centered on the Earth.”
Most early civilizations had a geocentric view of the universe.
An instrument that collects the infrared radiation emitted
by celestial objects. There are several Earth- and space-based infrared observatories.
The Infrared Telescope Facility, an Earth-bound infrared telescope, is the U.S.
national infrared observing facility at the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A planned
space-based infrared observatory is the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF).
An instrument that combines the signal from two or more
telescopes to produce a sharper image than the telescopes could achieve separately.
Narrow, high-energy streams of gas and other particles
generally ejected in two opposite directions from some central source. Jets
appear to originate in the vicinity of an extremely dense object, such as a
black hole, pulsar, or protostar, with a surrounding accretion disk. These jets
are thought to be perpendicular to the plane of the accretion disk.
Three laws, derived by 17th century German astronomer
Johannes Kepler, that describe planetary motion.
Kepler’s first law: The orbits of planets are ellipses, with the Sun
at one focus. Therefore, each planet moves in an elliptical orbit around the
Kepler’s second law: An imaginary line connecting any planet to the
Sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time.
Kepler’s third law: The square of any planet’s orbital period
is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.
A plot showing how the light output of a star (or other
variable astronomical object) changes with time.
The distance that a particle of light (photon) will travel
in a year — about 10 trillion kilometers (6 trillion miles). It is a useful
unit for measuring distances between stars.
The amount of energy radiated into space every second
by a celestial object, such as a star. It is closely related to the absolute
brightness of a celestial object.
Equals one million parsecs (3.26 million light-years)
and is the unit of distance commonly used to measure the distance between galaxies.
North Celestial Pole (NCP)
A direction determined by the projection of the Earth’s
North Pole onto the celestial sphere. It corresponds to a declination of +90
degrees. The North Star, Polaris, sits roughly at the NCP.
The portion of the entire universe that can be seen from
A telescope that gathers and magnifies visible light.
The two basic types of optical telescopes are refracting (using lenses) and reflecting
(using mirrors). The Hubble Space Telescope is an example of a reflecting telescope.
The apparent shift of an object’s position when viewed
from different locations. Parallax, also called trigonometric parallax, is used
to determine the distance to nearby stars. As the Earth’s position changes
during its yearly orbit around the Sun, the apparent locations of nearby stars
slightly shift. The stars’ distances can be calculated from those slight
shifts with basic trigonometric methods.
A useful unit for measuring the distances between astronomical
objects, equal to 3.26 light-years and 3.085678 * 1013 kilometers, or approximately
18 trillion miles. A parsec is also equivalent to 103,132 trips to the Sun and
A relationship that describes how the luminosity or absolute
brightness of a Cepheid variable star depends on the period of time over which
that brightness varies.
An instrument that measures the intensity of light. Astronomers
use photometers to measure the brightness of celestial objects.
A technique for measuring the brightness of celestial
The apparent motion of a star across the sky (not including
a star’s parallax), arising from the star’s velocity through space with respect
to the Sun.
The component of an object’s velocity (speed and
direction) as measured along an observer’s line of sight.
The velocity at which an object moves away from an observer.
The recessional velocity of a distant galaxy is proportional to its distance
from Earth. Therefore, the greater the recessional velocity, the more distant
The lengthening of a light wave from an object that is
moving away from an observer. For example, when a galaxy is traveling away from
Earth, its light shifts to the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A type of telescope, also known as a reflecting telescope,
that uses one or more polished, curved mirrors to gather light and reflect it
to a focal point.
A telescope, also known as a refracting telescope, that
uses a transparent lens to gather light and bend it to a focus.
The orbital motion of one object around another. The Earth
revolves around the Sun in one year. The moon revolves around the Earth in approximately
Right Ascension (RA)
A coordinate used by astronomers to locate stars and other
celestial objects in the sky. Right ascension is comparable to longitude, but
it is measured in hours, minutes, and seconds because the entire sky appears
to pass overhead over a period of 24 hours. The zero hour corresponds to the
apparent location of the Sun with respect to the stars on the day of the vernal
(spring) equinox (approximately March 21).
The smallest distance at which two celestial bodies can
remain in a stable orbit around each other without one of them being torn apart
by tidal forces. The distance depends on the densities of the two bodies and
their orbit around each other.
The spin of an object around its central axis. Earth rotates
about its axis every 24 hours. A spinning top rotates about its center shaft.
The distance from the “center” of a black
hole to its “edge” (called an event horizon). If the Earth became
a black hole, all of its mass would be squeezed into a sphere with a Schwarzschild
radius of 0.03 cm, about the size of a bacterium.
A high-pressure wave that travels at supersonic speeds.
Shock waves are usually produced by an explosion.
South Celestial Pole (SCP)
A direction determined by the projection of the Earth's
South Pole onto the celestial sphere. The SCP is exactly 180 degrees from the
North Celestial Pole and corresponds to a declination of –90 degrees.
An instrument that spreads electromagnetic radiation into
its component frequencies and wavelengths for detailed study. A spectrograph
is similar to a prism, which spreads white light into a continuous rainbow.
The study and interpretation of a celestial object’s
electromagnetic spectrum. A spectrograph or spectrometer is used to analyze
an object’s electromagnetic spectrum.
An object whose properties allow us to measure large distances
through space. The absolute brightness of a standard candle can be determined
without a measurement of its apparent brightness. Comparing the absolute brightness
of a standard candle to its apparent brightness therefore allows us to measure
its distance. For example, the distinct variations of Cepheid variable stars
in other galaxies tell us their absolute brightness. By accurately measuring
the apparent brightness of these stars, astronomers can precisely determine
the distance to the galaxy in which they reside.
The apparent change in the position of a nearby star when
observed from Earth due to our planet’s yearly orbit around the Sun. This
method allows astronomers to calculate distances to stars that are less than
100 parsecs from Earth.
An instrument used to observe distant objects by collecting
and focusing their electromagnetic radiation. Telescopes are usually designed
to collect light in a specific wavelength range. Examples include optical telescopes
that observe visible light and radio telescopes that detect radio waves.
The totality of space and time, along with all the matter
and energy in it. Current theories assert that the universe is expanding and
that all its matter and energy was created during the Big Bang.
The point on the celestial sphere that is directly above
the observer. Holding a balloon overhead places the balloon at your zenith.
Although celestial objects appear to rise and set as they move across the sky,
they rarely reach the zenith point.